sexta-feira, 1 de dezembro de 2006
The Restoration of Independence is a holiday commemorated on December 1.st to celebrate the recovery of national independence in 1640 from Spain under the rule of Felipe IV of Habsburg.
The Kingdom of Portugal had lost its independence in 1580, after the young Portuguese king Sebastião disappeared on the battle field of Alcazarquivir (in today's Morocco) in 1578, which put an abrupt end to the House of Aviz, Portugal's Royal Family since 1385.
Felipe II was crowned Felipe I of Portugal in 1580, and the Portuguese House of Habsburg – also called the Philippine Dynasty – began.
During 60 years, as Spain's enemies became Portugal's, a war with England led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally (since the Treaty of Windsor in 1386) and the loss of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf; a war with the Dutch led to invasions of many places in Asia, and to the definite loss of commercial interests in Japan, Africa (S. Jorge da Mina, in today's Ghana), and South America.
As Felipe IV was trying to make Portugal a Spanish province, and Portuguese nobles were losing power and influence, this deteriorating situation culminated in a revolution by the Portuguese nobility and high bourgeoisie on December 1.st 1640.
It was planned by Antão Vaz de Almada, Miguel de Almeida and João Pinto Ribeiro – the so-called "Conjurados"; together with several associates, they defenestrated the Secretary of State Miguel de Vasconcelos, the traitor, and imprisoned the cousin of Felipe IV, the Duchess of Mantua, who had governed Portugal in his name. The moment was well chosen, as Spain was at the time fighting the Thirty Years' War and also facing popular riots in Catalonia.
D. João, 8.th Duke of Bragança, was acclaimed King of Portugal throughout the country as João IV. Portugal was independent again.
RIC (adapted and abridged from "History of Portugal", Wikipedia)