terça-feira, 31 de outubro de 2006

Let's fly away...


"Legends of witches flying on brooms go back as far as the beginning of the Christian Era. The earliest known confession of a witch flying on a broom was in 1453, when Guillaume Edelin of St. Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, stated that he had done so. In 1563, Martin Tulouff of Guernsey said to have seen his aged mother straddle a broomstick and whisk up the chimney and out of the house on it, saying "Go in the name of the Devil and Lucifer over rocks and thorns". In 1598 Claudine Boban and her mother, witches of the province of Franche-Comté, eastern France, also spoke of flying up the chimney on a stick. The belief of flying off through the chimney became firmly embedded in popular tradition, although only a few people ever mentioned doing so. It has been suggested that this idea was connected with the old custom of pushing a broom up the chimney to indicate the absence of the housewife. The Germanic goddess Holda or Holle is also connected with the chimney.

Other indications that lead to the popular belief that witches actually flew on broomsticks can be found in an old custom of dancing with a broom between the legs, leaping high in the air.
Some authors claim that the oldest known source of witches flying on broomsticks is a manuscript called "Le Champion des Dames" by Martin Lefranc, 1440. This might be one of the oldest images representing a hag on a broomstick, but it is certainly not the first. A wall painting from the 12.th century in Schleswig Cathedral (Germany) shows the Norse deity Frigg riding her staff.

From the Roman world there are reports that mention witches flying on broomsticks as well as having used ointments, as early as the first century. They were called Straigæ, and the Lamiæ from Greek culture had similar characteristics. Later in Roman history, the goddess Diana was the leader of the Wild Hunt: "It is also not to be omitted that some wicked women, perverted by the Devil, seduced by illusions and phantasm of demons, believe and profess themselves in the hours of the night to ride upon certain beasts with Diana, the goddess of pagans, and an innumerable multitude of women, and in the silence of the dead of the night to traverse great spaces of earth, and to obey her commands as of their mistress, and to be summoned to her service on certain nights".

Similar beliefs existed in many parts of Europe. So flying through the air, evidently, was a deeply rooted mythological theme, associated with the free roaming of the spirit, the separation of soul and body.

The broomstick is a female and male symbol, "the rod which penetrated the bush". Its symbolism and interpretation is therefore purely sexual."

The Witchy Crypt

18 comentários:

4Horsemen disse...

And t0oday, Lynn Cheney, wife of our gasbag VP continues the tradition.

I mailed my ballot today.

Carioca disse...

A imagem da Bruxaria foi muito deturpada pela Igreja Católica e, depois, pelas várias igrejas protestantes, que deram um toque negativamente fantasioso a isso.
Nas últimas décadas, dá pra perceber que a Wicca tem trazido de volta os princípios da Bruxaria como são... Isso é, como são, mas adaptados aos dias de hoje.
Mas é claro que ninguém voa em vassouras, né?rs
Um abraço!

Joel disse...

Reading this reminded me of a book. I don't know if you've read it, but if you haven't, it's a must!

"The witching hour" by Anne Rice. One of he best books I've read. It is fiction, but so based on reality and facts, it's almost true.

Reading her book, I had images of almost everything she discribed, then I bought the "Witches companion" almost all my images were in that book.

If you haven't, read it, it's a must.

kevin disse...

A interesting history there.

HAPPY HALLOWEEN.
Kev in NZ.

Minge disse...

Thanks for all that info. My Mother is from Guernsey.

Everything is Freudian.

RIC disse...

Oh Will, you are merciless indeed!... (Lol!)
This post's title has two inspiration sources: Frank Sinatra and Donna Summer; you choose the way you want to fly away...
Good for you! Your vote is certain!
The pigs will be defeated!!!

RIC disse...

Meu querido Carioca! Como é que alguma Igreja ou religião admitiria que simples humanos tivessem poderes sobrenaturais?! Impossível!
Quanto à actualização da bruxaria nos dias de hoje, hás-de explicar-me isso melhor, está bem?
Um abraço para ti também! :-)

RIC disse...

Okay, Joel, thank you so very much for the tip! I've heard of Anne Rice, of course, but I haven't read any of her books yet.
Enjoy your day! :-)

RIC disse...

Hello Kevin! My best regards to beautiful New Zealand!
As we don't have the Halloween tradition, I thought I should pay a humble homage to the thousands of women who were killed by the Inquisition under the accusation of being witches.
(Just curious: how many hours later than London? 9 or 10?)

RIC disse...

Hello, dear Minge! Nice to receive you in my humble place!
That's an island in the British Channel, is it not?
Well, I believe if not everything, then quite close to it... Herr Freud was a quite shrew man indeed...
Enjoy your Halloween! :-)

Minge disse...

Yes, Guernsey is in the English Channel - quite near to France.

RIC disse...

You don't celebrate Halloween in Scotland, do you, Minge? Or in England, for what it matters...

Carioca disse...

A deturpação que eu disse que as igrejas fizeram foi exatamente isso: elas mencionam os bruxos como pessoas com poderes sobrenaturais. Pessoas que, de acordo com essas igrejas, receberiam poderes do diabo ou alguma coisa assim!
O que os bruxos faziam e fazem na verdade é invocar os deuses nos quais eles acreditam e pedir a esses deuses pra realizarem os pedidos deles. Só que isso é feito através de rituais, cerimônias e coisas desse tipo. E nenhum bruxo tem poderes nem divinos nem demoníacos. Foi isso que as igrejas deturparam.
Nos últimos anos, o que a Wicca (a Bruxaria Moderna) tem tentado fazer é esclarecer isso. Só que os praticantes têm hábitos e costumes comuns, voltados pros dias de hoje. Eles não vão mais realizar as cerimônias no meio de florestas de madrugada, por exemplo.
E Ric, obrigado pela força que você deu lá no blog. Mas ninguém encontrou o Frank ainda...
Bom, a gente se fala. Um abraço!

RIC disse...

Meu querido Carioca! Obrigado pelos teus esclarecimentos. Para mim, será sempre muito difícil «recontextualizar» os bruxos e as bruxas: é algo que tem que ver com a minha infância e com as histórias infantis que me contaram e que eu depois fui lendo.
Tal como me apresentas a «Wicca», mais facilmente sou capaz numa sociedade secreta (o que me atrai, confesso!). Mas fiquei interessado em saber mais! Vou investigar.
Quanto ao Frank, fiquei - e estou - preocupado. Poderá ter sofrido algum acidente? Ele está em Manaus, não é? Não há um amigo comum com quem contactar? Se acaso ele estivesse internado num hospital, não haveria forma de sabê-lo pelo telefone? Meu Deus, um desaparecimento é sempre angustiante...
Sim, Carioca, a gente fala-se, sem dúvida. Que tudo corra pelo melhor!
Um abraço para ti também! Ânimo!

André disse...

As histórias de bruxas que a minha bisavó me contava, essas sim eram giras. Foi delas que veio o meu interesse pela fantasia, género que li massivamente durante vários anos da minha vida. Adoro bruxas.
A minha preferida é a Morgan le Fay...

RIC disse...

Olá André! Curiosamente, todos temos essa ligação às bruxas em associação com a infância. Tal como tu, também eu digo que adoro bruxas (por isso mesmo, o édito de hoje, é óbvio!). E ainda hoje vou ao livro dos irmãos Grimm à procura das histórias com «Hexen», palavra alemã que diz tudo: bruxas!
Há também uma misteriosa «Fata Morgana» de arrepiar os cabelos...
Um abraço!

Gray disse...

You inspired me to remember the "Salem Witch Hunts" that took place in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 (a brief but grizzly part of early American history)!

Thank you for educating me. I had never heard about, "...the old custom of pushing a broom up the chimney to indicate the absence of the housewife." Hmmm. Should I do so now?

RIC disse...

... So many women were burned to death here as well, by the Inquisition... I guess this is the way I found to remember them somehow, though they were no witches, of course...
Well, if you think there's some use in showing that... As I live in an apartment I don't have that option anyway...